Cancer melanoma is an abnormal growth of skin cells and it occurs most frequently on sun-exposed skin areas.
There are three major types of skin cancer - basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. The first two types are developing slowly and in most cases are treatable, especially if they have been discovered in time. Cancer melanoma is the worst. It affects the deeper layers of the skin and it has great potential to spread to other tissues of the body.
All three types are becoming more common today, but most cases could be prevented by avoiding or limiting the exposure to ultraviolet light and by paying a more attention to skin changes that will arouse suspicion. If they are found early, the most forms of cancer melanoma can be treated successfully.
Signs and symptoms of cancer melanoma:
Cancer melanoma occurs primarily on sun-exposed areas of skin - face, lips, ears, scalp, neck, chest, arms and legs. But it can develop in regions that rarely see the sun - areas between fingers, genital regions. Cancer melanoma affects people of all shades of skin, including those with dark skin.
A specific lesion can appear suddenly or may develop slowly, depending on the type of cancer.
Basal cell carcinoma:
It is the most common, easiest to treat and which spreads harder. Usually appears as one of the following forms:
Squamous cell carcinoma:
It is easily treated if discovered early, but it can spread more easily than the previous form. Most often it is seen like:
Cancer melanoma, causes:
Skin cancer appears initially on the extern layer of skin - the epidermis. It has a protective role and is composed of three cell types:
Normally, skin cells grow in a controlled way. The new cells push on the elderly to the surface of the epidermis where they eventually die and will exfoliate. This process is controlled genetically by DNA. When DNA is damaged, this process no longer occurs normally and new cells multiply uncontrollably, resulting in skin cancer.
The ultraviolet radiation causes the most of the DNA disorders. They come from both the sun and from different tanning devices. Both B and A ultraviolet radiation may produce gene changes that will trigger skin cancer.
Between others incriminated factors is included heredity, various dermal exposure to toxic substances or other types of radiation.
Risk factors for cancer melanoma: